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Evidence of human presence in Mexico dates back at least to the 20th millennium BC. e. In the middle of the first millennium BC. e. sedentary cultures develop in central and southern Mexico.

In the XII-V centuries. BC e. On the territory of Mexico, the Olmec culture flourished, which had a significant impact on the formation of later classical civilizations. These civilizations flourished in the 4th-9th centuries. n. e., these were the cultures of Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Totonac, Maya. Mayan achievements include hieroglyphic writing, developed architecture and decorative arts, extensive knowledge of mathematics and astronomy, and an accurate calendar. In the XII century, the Aztecs appeared in Central Mexico, having conquered many tribes living there, they created a powerful empire.

In 1517, a purposeful exploration and conquest of Mexico by Europeans began. The Spaniards sent three expeditions to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. The first in 1517 was led by Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba, the second in 1518 by Juan de Grijalva, and the third in 1519 by Hernán Cortés, conqueror of the Aztec empire. In 1522, the Spanish emperor Charles V approved the latter as captain-general and governor of the conquered lands, transferring to his possession lands of 64,750 km² with 100,000 Indians living on them .

In 1528, the power of Cortes was limited, an audience was sent to Mexico — an administrative-judicial collegium, reporting directly to the king. In 1535, Mexico became part of the newly created Viceroyalty of New Spain. From 1521 to 1821, Mexico remained a colonial possession of Spain. Its economy was based on the exploitation of the Indians, who were forced to work on the lands taken from them and in the mines[5]. The economy of New Spain was subordinated to the interests of the metropolis, its most important industry was the extraction of precious metals.

The dissatisfaction of various segments of the population with discrimination and political lawlessness, on the one hand, and the events on the European continent, the struggle of the English colonies in North America for independence, the penetration of progressive ideas into Latin America, on the other, caused the peasant unrest of 1810, which led Mexico to a ten-year war for independence. Among the leaders of the rebels, the priests Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and José Maria Morelos stood out — both were captured and executed. At the end of the war, the liberation movement was led by Agustín de Iturbide, who became Mexican emperor in May 1822. In March 1823, the empire fell and Mexico became a republic.

In 1835, the Mexican state of Texas begins the War of Independence. As a result of the decisive battle lost by the Mexicans in 1836, the Republic of Texas achieved secession, and was soon (in 1845) annexed by the United States.

In 1841–1848 on the peninsula of the same name there was the Republic of Yucatan, which announced the separation from Mexico. In 1845, an uprising broke out in California, the rebels announced the creation of their own government.

In the spring of 1846, US troops invaded Mexican territory. By the fall of 1847, the Americans had captured a vast area and the capital, Mexico City. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, put an end to the war. Upper California, New Mexico and parts of the lands of other states went to the USA, this amounted to more than half of the entire area of ​​Mexico.

In 1854–1860 there is a bourgeois revolution and a civil war between Mexican conservatives and liberals led by Benito Juarez. The conflict ended in an unconditional victory for the latter.

In 1861, Britain, France and Spain, supported by Mexican conservatives, intervened in Mexico. In 1862, their coalition broke up, but French troops remained in Mexico. Her army occupied a number of states and entered Mexico City. The country was declared an empire headed by the monarch, Maximilian I. Since the invaders were supported by only a small minority of Mexicans in 1867, Napoleon III, having more ambitious plans in Europe and fearing US intervention, withdrew French troops from Mexico. In 1867, the forces of Maximilian I were defeated, and he himself was convicted and shot.

In 1876, having made a coup, General Porfirio Diaz came to power, who ruled the country for more than 30 years, the reverse side of the economic success of his reign was high social tension. In 1910, a civil war began, ending with the adoption of the Constitution of 1917.

In 1934, Lazaro Cardenas, known for the nationalization of property owned by foreign oil companies, became president. In the 1940s an economic recovery begins, ending with the crisis of the 1980s, caused by falling oil prices. In the mid 1980s. the country is moving towards neo-liberal reforms. In 1994, the Zapatistas rebelled against neo-liberalism. In the same year, a new financial and economic crisis broke out. In 2000, elections are held in Mexico that put an end to the long-term hegemony of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (IRP)

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